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Influence of adipocyte size and adipose depot on the number of adipose tissue macrophages and the expression of adipokines in dairy cows at the end of pregnancy
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
The aim of this study was to determine the number of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) and the mRNA expression of adipokines [adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin 10 (IL10)] in different adipose depots from cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) at the end of the dry period. We hypothesized that the number of ATM and the expression of these adipokines depend on adipocyte size and the anatomical location of the adipose depot. Subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, perirenal, and intrapelvic adipose tissue samples were taken immediately after euthanasia of 10 Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5, age 3.9 ± 1.4 yr; mean ± standard deviation) at the end of pregnancy (actual days of pregnancy at the moment of euthanasia: 269 ± 5 d). During the dry period, all animals received similar diets to meet but not exceed requirements. Five animals were considered to have a normal BCS (2.5-3.5) and 5 animals were considered to be over-conditioned (BCS = 3.75-5). Body weight of the animals at the moment of euthanasia was 717 ± 77 kg. Expression of the different genes was determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Adipocyte size was determined by measuring the area of 100 adipocytes on histological sections. Average adipocyte area was 10,475 ± 1,019, 8,500 ± 780, 10,383 ± 1,227, 11,466 ± 1,039, and 11,087 ± 1,632 µm2 for the subcutaneous, mesenteric, omental, intrapelvic, and perirenal adipose depot, respectively. Immunohistochemistry using anti-bovine CD172a antibodies was performed to determine the proportion of ATM (the number of CD172a-positive cells per 100 adipocytes, given as a percentage). Expression of LEP, IL6, and TNF was positively associated with adipocyte size, whereas no association could be detected between ADIPOQ and IL10 with the size of the adipocytes. The omental adipose depot was especially infiltrated with ATM (1.92 ± 0.55, 1.10 ± 0.33, and 8.28 ± 2.24% for the subcutaneous, mesenteric, and omental adipose depot, respectively). The proportion of ATM was positively associated with the size of the adipocytes in the omental and mesenteric adipose depot. Expression of ADIPOQ, LEP, IL6, TNF, and IL10 differed among depots, which suggests differences in inflammatory characteristics depending on the anatomical location of depots. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirm the adipose tissue as a potential source of inflammatory mediators and demonstrate ATM infiltration, especially in the omental adipose depot.
Journal: Journal of Dairy Science
Pages: 6542 - 6555
Number of pages: 14
Keywords:Food & animal science & technology