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Genetic diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates and resulting outcomes of tuberculosis infection and disease

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

Tuberculosis claims more human lives than any other bacterial infectious disease and represents a clear and present danger to global health as new tools for vaccination, treatment, and interruption of transmission have been slow to emerge. Additionally, tuberculosis presents with notable clinical heterogeneity, which complicates diagnosis, treatment, and the establishment of nonrelapsing cure. How this heterogeneity is driven by the diversity of clinical isolates of the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has recently garnered attention. Herein, we review advances in the understanding of how naturally occurring variation in clinical isolates affects transmissibility, pathogenesis, immune modulation, and drug resistance. We also summarize how specific changes in transcriptional responses can modulate infection or disease outcome, together with strain-specific effects on gene essentiality. Further understanding of how this diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates affects disease and treatment outcomes will enable the development of more effective therapeutic options and vaccines for this dreaded disease.
Journal: Annual Review of Genetics
ISSN: 0066-4197
Volume: 54
Pages: 511 - 537
Publication year:2020
Keywords:Genetics & developmental biology