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Functional peroxisomes are required for beta-cell integrity in mice

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

OBJECTIVES: Peroxisomes play a crucial role in lipid and reactive oxygen species metabolism, but their importance for pancreatic β-cell functioning is presently unknown. To examine the contribution of peroxisomal metabolism to β-cell homeostasis in mice, we inactivated PEX5, the import receptor for peroxisomal matrix proteins, in an inducible and β-cell restricted manner (Rip-Pex5-/- mice). METHODS: After tamoxifen-induced recombination of the Pex5 gene at the age of 6 weeks, mice were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and were subsequently phenotyped. RESULTS: Increased levels of very long chain fatty acids and reduced levels of plasmalogens in islets confirmed impairment of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ether lipid synthesis, respectively. The Rip-Pex5-/- mice fed on either diet exhibited glucose intolerance associated with impaired insulin secretion. Ultrastructural and biochemical analysis revealed a decrease in the density of mature insulin granules and total pancreatic insulin content, which was further accompanied by mitochondrial disruptions, reduced complex I activity and massive vacuole overload in β-cells. RNAseq analysis suggested that cell death pathways were affected in islets from HFD-fed Rip-Pex5-/- mice. Consistent with this change we observed increased β-cell apoptosis in islets and a decrease in β-cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that normal peroxisome metabolism in β-cells is crucial to preserve their structure and function.
Journal: Molecular Metabolism
ISSN: 2212-8778
Volume: 22
Pages: 71 - 83
Number of pages: 13
Publication year:2019