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Experimental Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for Robust Received Signal Strength-Based Visible Light Positioning
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
In this work, the use of Machine Learning methods for robust Received Signal Strength (RSS)-based Visible Light Positioning (VLP) is experimentally evaluated. The performance of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) models and Gaussian processes (GP) is investigated when using relative RSS input features. The experimental set-up for the RSS-based VLP technology uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs) transmitting intensity modulated light and a single photodiode (PD) as a receiver. The experiments focus on achieving robustness to cope with unknown received signal strength modifications over time. Therefore, several datasets were collected, where per dataset either the LEDs transmitting power is modified or the PD aperture is partly obfuscated by dust particles. Two relative RSS schemes are investigated. The first scheme uses the maximum received light intensity to normalize the received RSS vector, while the second approach obtains RSS ratios by combining all possible unique pairs of received intensities. The Machine Learning (ML) methods are compared to a relative multilateration implementation. It is demonstrated that the adopted MLP and GP models exhibit superior performance and higher robustness when compared to the multilateration strategies. Furthermore, when comparing the investigated ML models, the GP model is proven to be more robust than the MLP for the considered scenarios.
Number of pages: 23