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Evaluation of a simple management protocol for hyperglycaemic crises using intramuscular insulin in a resource-limited setting

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

BACKGROUND:

Management of hyperglycaemic crises requires expensive and labour-intensive procedures that are not achievable in all clinical settings. Intramuscular (IM) insulin therapy is a more feasible alternative, but remains insufficiently evaluated. We report here on an audit of clinical outcomes of a simple management protocol that involves IM insulin therapy, careful rehydration and inexpensive monitoring in a resource-limited setting.

METHODS:

In June 2006, we began the routine use of a protocol based on IM insulin administration, careful rehydration and affordable monitoring for the management of hyperglycaemic crises in Yaoundé Central Hospital. Clinical records of patients admitted for hyperglycaemic crises 6 months before and 6 months after introduction of the protocol were independently coded and compared for clinical outcomes, including the 48-hour death rate as a primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were blood glucose (BG) normalization and duration of hospital stay.

RESULTS:

A total of 112 patients' files fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 57 before and 55 after the introduction of the IM protocol (intervention). Patients of the pre-intervention group were aged 56.4+/-2.1 years versus 53.9+/-2.3 years in the intervention group (p=0.41), with 23% versus 40%, respectively, with newly diagnosed diabetes (p=0.05), and 45% versus 41%, respectively, with significant ketosis on admission (p=0.84). As for the primary endpoint, 15.8% of the pre-intervention group died within 48 hours of admission versus 3.6% in the intervention group (p=0.03). BG was normalized within 24 hours of admission in 28.1% patients of the pre-intervention group versus 90.9% of the intervention group (p
CONCLUSION:

The proposed protocol using IM insulin can be safely used to treat hyperglycaemic crises, with mortality rates comparable to those in specialized centres in developed countries.
Journal: Diabetes and Metabolism
ISSN: 1262-3636
Issue: 5
Volume: 35
Pages: 404-409
Number of pages: 6
Publication year:2009
Keywords:Blood glucose; Insulin; Diabetes Mellitus
  • Scopus Id: 70449532034