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Contribution of the Presenilins in the cell biology, structure and function of gamma-secretase

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

γ-Secretase cleavage is essential for many biological processes and its dysregulation is linked to disease, including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, understanding the regulation of its activity is of major importance to improve drug design and develop novel therapeutics. γ-Secretase belongs to the family of intramembrane cleaving proteases (i-CLiPs), which cleaves its substrates in a process termed regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). During RIP, type-I transmembrane proteins are first cleaved within their ectodomain by a sheddase and then within their transmembrane domain by γ-secretase. γ-Secretase is composed of four integral membrane proteins that are all essential for its function: presenilin (PSEN), anterior pharynx defective 1 (APH1), nicastrin (NCT) and presenilin enhancer 2 (PEN-2). Given the presence of two PSEN homologues (PSEN1 & 2) and several APH1 isoforms, a heterogeneity exists in cellular γ-secretase complexes. It is becoming clear that each of these complexes has overlapping as well as distinct biological characteristics. This review summarizes our current knowledge on complex formation, trafficking, subcellular localization, interactors and the structure of γ-secretase, with a focus, when possible or known, on the contribution of PSEN1 and PSEN2 herein.
Journal: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
ISSN: 1084-9521
Volume: 105
Pages: 12 - 26
Publication year:2020
BOF-keylabel:yes
IOF-keylabel:yes
BOF-publication weight:6
CSS-citation score:2
Authors from:Government, Higher Education
Accessibility:Open