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Automated sleep staging on reduced channels in children with epilepsy

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to validate a sleep staging algorithm using in-hospital video-electroencephalogram (EEG) in children without epilepsy, with well-controlled epilepsy (WCE), and with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). METHODS: Overnight video-EEG, along with electrooculogram (EOG) and chin electromyogram (EMG), was recorded in children between 4 and 18 years of age. Classical sleep staging was performed manually as a ground truth. An end-to-end hierarchical recurrent neural network for sequence-to-sequence automatic sleep staging (SeqSleepNet) was used to perform automated sleep staging using three channels: C4-A1, EOG, and chin EMG. RESULTS: In 176 children sleep stages were manually scored: 47 children without epilepsy, 74 with WCE, and 55 with DRE. The 5-class sleep staging accuracy of the automatic sleep staging algorithm was 84.7% for the children without epilepsy, 83.5% for those with WCE, and 80.8% for those with DRE (Kappa of 0.79, 0.77, and 0.73 respectively). Performance per sleep stage was assessed with an F1 score of 0.91 for wake, 0.50 for N1, 0.83 for N2, 0.84 for N3, and 0.86 for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the tested algorithm has a high accuracy in children without epilepsy and with WCE. Performance in children with DRE was acceptable, but significantly lower, which could be explained by a tendency of more time spent in N1, and by abundant interictal epileptiform discharges and intellectual disability leading to less recognizable sleep stages. REM sleep time, however, significantly affected in children with DRE, can be detected reliably by the algorithm.Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04584385.
Journal: Frontiers in neurology
ISSN: 1664-2295
Volume: 15
Publication year:2024