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ATG or post-transplant cyclophosphamide to prevent GVHD in matched unrelated stem cell transplantation?

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

There is a high risk of GVHD and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic stem cell transplantations (alloSCT) from unrelated donors. Prophylaxis with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) is standard in Europe but post-transplantation Cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an emerging alternative. We analyzed outcomes of rATG (n = 7725) vs. PTCy (n = 1039) prophylaxis in adult patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing peripheral blood alloSCT from 10/10 antigen-matched unrelated donors (MUD) between January 2018 and June 2021 in the EBMT database. The provided P-values and hazard ratios (HR) are derived from multivariate analysis. Two years after alloSCT, NRM in the PTCy group was 12.1% vs. 16.4% in the rATG group; p = 0.016; HR 0.72. Relapse was less frequent after PTCy vs. rATG (22.8% vs. 26.6%; p = 0.046; HR 0.87). Overall survival after PTCy was higher (73.1% vs. 65.9%; p = 0.001, HR 0.82). Progression free survival was better after PTCy vs. rATG (64.9% vs. 57.2%; p < 0.001, HR 0.83). The incidence of chronic GVHD was lower after PTCy (28.4% vs. rATG 31.4%; p = 0.012; HR 0.77), whereas the incidence and severity of acute GVHD were not significantly different. GVHD-free relapse-free survival was significantly higher in the PTCy arm compared to the rATG arm (2 y incidence: 51% vs. 45%; HR: 0.86 [95% CI 0.75-0.99], p = 0.035). In the absence of evidence from randomized controlled trials, our findings support a preference for the use of PTCy in adult recipients of peripheral blood alloSCTs from MUD.
Journal: Leukemia
ISSN: 0887-6924
Issue: 5
Volume: 38
Pages: 1156 - 1163
Publication year:2024