Assessment of Trypanosoma evansi prevalence and associated risk factors by immune trypanolysis test in camels from Ghardaïa district, southern Algeria
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is a flagellated parasite with worldwide distribution, mainly affecting camels, horses, dogs, buffaloes and wild animals. Trypanosomosis caused by T. evansi, known as surra, is a vector borne disease that affects the health and productivity of camels. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of trypanosomosis due to T. evansi in camels by the immune trypanolosis test and to identify associated risk factors. Our cross-sectional study was performed on 161 camels from Ghardaïa district, southern Algeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on individual characteristics (age, gender and breed) husbandry management (herd size and activity of animals) and health conditions (history of abortion and clinical symptoms). The immune trypanolysis test revealed an overall seroprevalence of 9.3% (CI 95%, 5.9-14.9). Possible factors associated with T. evansi infection were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The results showed that risk factors for camels were history of symptoms (P = 0.002, OR = 21.91, CI95% = 3.48-169.80), racing activities (P = 0.003, OR = 0.01, CI95% = 0.001-0.18) and small herd size (P = 0.013, OR = 8.22, CI95% = 1.64-49.75). In conclusion, this study showed that T. evansi is endemic in camels of Ghardaïa district. To reduce dissemination of the disease to non-endemic areas, it is recommended to minimise risk factors associated with the infection.