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Assessing Upper Limb Function in Breast Cancer Survivors Using Wearable Sensors and Machine Learning in a Free-Living Environment

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

(1) Background: Being able to objectively assess upper limb (UL) dysfunction in breast cancer survivors (BCS) is an emerging issue. This study aims to determine the accuracy of a pre-trained lab-based machine learning model (MLM) to distinguish functional from non-functional arm movements in a home situation in BCS. (2) Methods: Participants performed four daily life activities while wearing two wrist accelerometers and being video recorded. To define UL functioning, video data were annotated and accelerometer data were analyzed using a counts threshold method and an MLM. Prediction accuracy, recall, sensitivity, f1-score, 'total minutes functional activity' and 'percentage functionally active' were considered. (3) Results: Despite a good MLM accuracy (0.77-0.90), recall, and specificity, the f1-score was poor. An overestimation of the 'total minutes functional activity' and 'percentage functionally active' was found by the MLM. Between the video-annotated data and the functional activity determined by the MLM, the mean differences were 0.14% and 0.10% for the left and right side, respectively. For the video-annotated data versus the counts threshold method, the mean differences were 0.27% and 0.24%, respectively. (4) Conclusions: An MLM is a better alternative than the counts threshold method for distinguishing functional from non-functional arm movements. However, the abovementioned wrist accelerometer-based assessment methods overestimate UL functional activity.

Journal: Sensors (Switzerland)
ISSN: 1424-8220
Issue: 13
Volume: 23
Publication year:2023
Keywords:Humans, Female, Cancer Survivors, Breast Neoplasms, Upper Extremity, Machine Learning, Wearable Electronic Devices, Accelerometry/methods
Accessibility:Open