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Altered PPARγ Expression Promotes Myelin-Induced Foam Cell Formation in Macrophages in Multiple Sclerosis
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Macrophages play a crucial role during the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a neuroinflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. Important regulators of the metabolic and inflammatory phenotype of macrophages are liver X receptors (LXRs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Previously, it has been reported that PPAR gamma expression is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The goal of the present study was to determine to what extent PPAR gamma, as well as the closely related nuclear receptors PPAR alpha and beta and LXR alpha and beta, are differentially expressed in monocytes from MS patients and how this change in expression affects the function of monocyte-derived macrophages. We demonstrate that monocytes of relapsing-remitting MS patients display a marked decrease in PPAR gamma expression, while the expression of PPAR alpha and LXR alpha/beta is not altered. Interestingly, exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy donors to MS-associated proinflammatory cytokines mimicked this reduction in PPAR gamma expression. While a reduced PPAR gamma expression did not affect the inflammatory and phagocytic properties of myelin-loaded macrophages, it did impact myelin processing by increasing the intracellular cholesterol load of myelin-phagocytosing macrophages. Collectively, our findings indicate that an inflammation-induced reduction in PPAR gamma expression promotes myelin-induced foam cell formation in macrophages in MS.
Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Number of pages: 13
Keywords:multiple sclerosis, Multidisciplinary chemistry, Biochemistry/biophysics/molecular biology