Fabrication of a Microfluidic Chip using MEMS Technology for Point-of-care Diagnosis of Bone Turnover Biomarkers
OSCE results in undergraduate medical students at the end of the clerckship.
The efficacy of the prehospital care provided by Tehran Emergency Service in Trauma patients referred to
Sina Hospital during September 2002 and 2003.
The prospective study was performed on trauma patients referred to the emergency department of a
teaching hospital by the Tehran EMS from September 2004 until 2005. Considering the lack of scientific
observation-based protocols on pre-hospital care, certain protocols were developed based on the
available up-to-date protocols in the emergency medicine text books and were used as the gold standard
for comparing the provided care by EMSs. The effectiveness of pre-hospital care performed by Tehran
emergency technicians, compatible with the patients' condition, was evaluated in 994 patients. According
to the results, wound bandaging and haemostasis were done correctly in 80% of the indicated cases.
Splint was applied correctly in 50% of patients in need for such a device, whereas collar and spinal bed
were not performed in 80% of the indicated cases. Tehran's EMS is not capable of providing trauma
patients with effective and accurate pre-hospital care, indicating that major changes are needed to improve