Analyzing Sustainable Marine Tourism Development on Small Islands: A Social-Ecological System Approach
Many alternative approaches can be used to achieve sustainable development in tourism planning. One approach deals with handling conflicting interests. On the one hand, seen from an environmental perspective, tourism development can lead to a degradation of ecosystems. On the other, tourism development can also provide financial support for the protection of the marine environment and endangered species and the livelihoods of local communities. As such, in using the sustainable tourism concept, many factors must be considered, including the involvement of stakeholders, since they all have their own interests in developing (or not) tourism. Those result in environmental conflict and the need to incorporate multiple stakeholder perspectives to enhance sustainability goals in tourism development. This research aims to unveil environmental conflict and the need to mediate human and non-human actants’ perspectives and interests using a case study of tourism in a developing country and examining tourism-related stakeholders’ experiences, roles, concerns, desires, and cooperation. It also aims to conceptualize pathways to synergize multi-stakeholders in enhancing sustainable tourism and social-ecological resilience in tourism areas. The research will hopefully contribute to enable all parties related to tourism development to develop a more responsible and integrated ‘sustainably driven tourism program. The study will use a case study research strategy focusing on Pahawang Island, Lampung Province Indonesia and qualitative methods to analyze the different perspectives and conflicts among stakeholders involved. It will use a socio-ecological system approach to reveal the concept of synergy among stakeholders in enhancing sustainable tourism and socio-ecological resilience.